"Stress" is a term doctors use to describe normal responses in the body that are needed for health and survival. Understanding the responses of the mind and body when called upon during stress may provide insight to an underlying cause of IBS and open the door to new and more effective treatment.
One way to understand irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is that there is increased gastrointestinal (GI) response to stress. The stress can be understood as anything that can stimulate the GI tract, including:
- Hormonal changes
- Physical activity
- Psychological stress
Stress can arise from a perceived or actual event that disturbes the balance between mind, brain, and body. Stress can occur with or without conscious feelings of anxiety, distress, or anger.
Stress can be acute (short term) or chronic (long acting, more than three months). It can range from daily hassles to life-threatening events.
Chronic stress experienced in early life (less than 18 years of age) has been shown to be associated with an increased prevalence of many medical conditions, including:
- High blood pressure
Stressors are any factors that produce stress. There are various types of stressors which may impact IBS symptoms. These may be physical (such as infection, surgery) and/or psychological (such as loss of job, divorce, history of abuse) in origin.
Stress has been shown to increase motility and sensation of the colon to a greater degree in IBS patients compared to healthy individuals without IBS.
IBS results from a complex biologic interaction between the brain and gut. To understand IBS, it's important to recognize that this condition represents a heightened sensitivity of the bowel and this can be manifested in response to internal and external stressors.
Addressing stressors that may be associated with IBS symptoms is the first step in understanding the relationship between stress and IBS. People suffering with IBS should work with their health care providers in developing a management plan to address these issues effectively, when present, in order to decrease symptoms and improve overall quality of life.
Source: Adapted from IFFGD Publication #101 revised and updated by Douglas A. Drossman, MD, Drossman Gastroenterology PLLC, Chapel Hill, NC.